欧洲自由行费用协会

英国首相梅姨演讲:让每个年轻人获得最适合自己的教育

境华出国 2018-11-10 07:27:19

英国的教育一直受到全球家长的喜爱与关注,英国引领着世界的教学质量。世界上十所顶尖大学中有三所在英国,其中包括在世界上排名第一的大学。


英国拥有世界级教学理念,培养具有创造性的思想家,英国有19所教学评分5星级的大学,超过全球任何国家。91%的国际留学生,对他们在英国接受的教育感到满意。



2月19日,英国首相梅姨在德比学院(Derby College)讲话,表示要对英国教育系统进行整改,资助贫困学子,同时更加关注职业技术教育。太多人因为家庭背景或阶层差距,而遭受教育和就业阻碍,要让阶层差距成为过去时,要让每个年轻人都获得最适合自己的高等教育。




梅姨关于高校教育的演讲稿英文版(滑动可阅读全文)

I took my very first steps into elected politics as a local councillor, in south London.

For two years I was the chairman of the education authority in Merton.

It was an experience I will never forget.

I saw how vital good schools and colleges are to a community.

How the hopes and aspirations which parents have for their children…

…and which young people have for their futures…

…are bound-up with the quality of education on offer.

And here in this fantastic setting…

…in a building from Derby’s proud past, which today is helping to define a fantastic future for this city and county as part of Derby College…

…the immense value of great local institutions, providing people with an education that truly works for them, is clear.

I drew on my experiences in south London when I first became an MP, and made my maiden speech in Parliament on the subject education in 1997.

I said then that the aim of education policy should be to ‘provide the right education for every child’.

That ‘for some children that will be an education that is firmly based in learning practical and vocational skills. For others, it will be an education based on academic excellence.’

A lot has changed in the last 20 years, but that core principle…

…that the needs of every child and every young person deserve to be met…

…still drives my vision of the education system our country needs.

And the need for such a system has never been greater.

First, because the new technologies which are shaping the economy of the future will transform the world of work and demand new knowledge and skills in the decades ahead.

Technologies like artificial intelligence, biotech and new advances in data science have the potential to drive up living standards and open new possibilities for human achievement and personal fulfilment.

But if we are to seize those opportunities…

…if we are to make Britain a great engine room of this technological revolution in the twenty-first century…

…we need to make the most of all of our talents.

The sixth form students I met at Featherstone High School in Southall this morning, and the young people studying here at Derby College, will be starting their careers in the new economy of the 2020s and 2030s.

To give them the skills they need to succeed, we need an education and training system which is more flexible and more diverse than it is today.

One which enriches their lives with knowledge, gives each of them a great start in life, and is there for them when they need it.

And there is another reason why we must act now to deliver that education system that truly works for everyone.

Because the Britain of the 2020s will be a Britain outside of the European Union, pursuing a new course in the world.

I want the Britain which those young people will be living in to be a self-confident, outward-looking Britain.

The best friend and ally of our EU partners.

But also a Britain which is out in the world, forming even closer ties with friends and allies right across the globe.

We will learn together, collaborating in research which makes new scientific breakthroughs and improves our understanding of the world.

We will trade together, spreading opportunity and prosperity ever more widely.

And we will stand together in support of the shared values which unite Britain with so many other likeminded countries – in Europe yes, but across the world too.

To become that Britain…

…where a thriving economy drives up living standards and creates greater security and opportunity for everyone…

…and where the prosperity which economic growth generates is more fairly shared in our society…

…we need education to be the key that unlocks the door to a better future.

Through education, we can become a country where everyone, from every background, gains the skills they need to get a good job and live a happy and fulfilled life.

To achieve that, we must have an education system at all levels which serves the needs of every child.

And if we consider the experience which many young people have of our system as it is, it is clear that we do not have such a system today.”

Challenges we face

“Imagine two children currently in secondary school and thinking about their futures.

One is a working class boy from here in Derby.

He aspires to a career as a lawyer, but he doesn’t have a social network to draw on with any links to the profession, and he doesn’t know if someone like him can make it.

The road he will have to take to achieve his dream is much more challenging than the one his counterpart who is privately educated will face.

Almost a quarter of the students at our research-intensive universities come from the 7% of the population who go to private school.

And the professions which draw their recruits primarily from these institutions remain unrepresentative of the country as a whole, skewed in favour of a particular social class.

For the boy from a working class home here in Derby, the odds are stacked against him…

…and as a country, we all lose out when we do not make the most of everyone’s talents and ability.

And now imagine a second child.

She is a girl from a middle class background, who is privately educated.

Her dream is to be a software developer, and she wishes she could go straight into the industry.

But she faces another set of pressures, which tell her that studying academic A-levels and making a UCAS application to a Russell group university is what the world expects of her.

The idea that there might be another path…

…just as promising and better suited to her individual hopes and dreams…

…simply doesn’t occur.

In each case, the system is not working for the individual or for our country.

Paul Johnson of the IFS recently wrote about the experiences his two sons had of leaving school.

One, a natural fit at university, found the application process simple and straight forward.

The other, who wanted to pursue a technical course, found it much more difficult because, ‘everything points to university as the default.’

Roughly half of young people go to university and roughly half do not.

But in the twenty years since we introduced tuition fees, public debate on tertiary education has been dominated by a discussion of how we fund and support those who go to university, and there has been nothing like the same attention paid to how we support the training and develop the skills of the young people who do not.

Most politicians, most journalists, most political commentators took the academic route themselves, and will expect their children to do the same.

And there remains a perception that going to university is really the only desirable route, while going into training is something for other people’s children.

If we are going to succeed in building a fairer society and a stronger economy, we need to throw away this outdated attitude for good…
…and create a system of tertiary education that works for all our young people.

That means equality of access to an academic university education which is not dependent on your background, and it means a much greater focus on the technical alternatives too.

One of the great social achievements of the last half-century has been the transformation of an academic university education from something enjoyed almost-exclusively by a social elite into something which is open to everyone.

But making university truly accessible to young people from every background is not made easier by a funding system which leaves students from the lowest-income households bearing the highest levels of debt…

…with many graduates left questioning the return they get for their investment.

And for those young people who do not go on to academic study, the routes into further technical and vocational training today are hard to navigate, the standards across the sector are too varied and the funding available to support them is patchy.

The UK’s participation rate in advanced technical education – teaching people skills which will be crucial for the future – is low by international standards.

The latest annual figures show that fewer than 16,000 people completed higher qualifications through the further education system.

That is compared to almost 350,000 undergraduate degrees which were awarded last year.

This imbalance has an economic cost, with some businesses finding it hard to recruit the skilled workers they need.

But it also has a social cost in wasted human potential, which we too often ignore.

So now is the time to take action to create a system that is flexible enough to ensure that everyone gets the education that suits them.

That’s what the review which I am launching today sets out to deliver.

And in doing so, it will build on the enormous progress we have already made in raising standards in our schools since 2010.”

School standards

“The success of every young person in whatever they go on to do in life, is shaped by the education they receive at school…

…and Conservatives have put restoring rigour and high standards in our primary and secondary schools at the heart of our education reforms.

We launched a major expansion of the academy programme, putting school teachers in charge of raising standards in their schools.

And we also went a step further, creating free schools – to give teachers, universities and charities the chance to bring greater innovation and specialism to the mix.

I have always believed in the great potential which Free Schools have to improve the lives of children.

That’s why I put them in the Conservative election manifesto in 2001, as shadow education secretary.

And now free schools score some of the very highest results at GCSE.

The range of reforms which we put in place are leading to improved outcomes for young people.

1.9 million more children are being taught in schools that are good or outstanding.

The attainment gap is shrinking at primary and secondary school.

And England is improving internationally.

The job is not yet done, but we are making excellent progress, and enormous credit is due to the teachers whose hard work has driven these improved outcomes.”

Tertiary review

“On top of the firm foundation of a great primary and secondary education, and the reforms we are putting in place to introduce high quality T-levels…

…we now need to ensure that options open to young people as they move into adulthood are more diverse…

…that the routes into further education and training are clearer…

…and that all options are fully accessible to everyone.

That is why I am today launching a major and wide-ranging review into post-18 education.

The review will be supported by an expert panel.

And I am delighted that Philip Augar has agreed to chair that panel.

It will focus on four key questions.

How we ensure that tertiary education is accessible to everyone, from every background.

How our funding system provides value for money, both for students and taxpayers.

How we incentivise choice and competition right across the sector.

And finally, how we deliver the skills that we need as a country.

This is a review which, for the first time, looks at the whole post-18 education sector in the round, breaking down false boundaries between further and higher education, so we can create a system which is truly joined-up.

Universities – many of which provide technical as well as academic courses – will be considered alongside colleges, Institutes of Technology and apprenticeship providers.

There are huge success stories to be found right across the sector, at every level, and by taking a broad view, Philip and his expert panel will be able to make recommendations which help the sector to be even better in the future.”

Student finance

“Our universities are world-leaders and jewels in Britain’s crown.

16 British universities are in the world’s top 100, and four are in the top ten.

I want to know how we can build on that success, and at the same time ensure that people from all backgrounds share the benefits of university study.

So the review will examine how we can give people from disadvantaged backgrounds an equal chance to succeed.

That includes how disadvantaged students and learners receive maintenance support, both from Government and universities and colleges.

But the review will also look more widely, and examine our whole system of student funding.

There are many aspects of the current system which work well.

Universities in England are now better funded than they have been for a generation.

And sharing the cost of university between taxpayers as a whole and the graduates who directly benefit from university study is a fair principle.

It has enabled us to lift the cap on the number of places – which was in effect a cap on aspiration – so universities can expand and so broaden access.

But I know that other aspects of the system are a cause for serious concern – not just for students themselves, but parents and grandparents too.

This is a concern which I share.

The competitive market between universities which the system of variable tuition fees envisaged has simply not emerged.

All but a handful of universities charge the maximum possible fees for undergraduate courses.

Three-year courses remain the norm.

And the level of fees charged do not relate to the cost or quality of the course.

We now have one of the most expensive systems of university tuition in the world.

We have already begun to take action to address some of these concerns.

We scrapped the increase in fees that was due this year, and we have increased the amount graduates can earn before they start repaying their fees to £25,000.

The review will now look at the whole question of how students and graduates contribute to the cost of their studies including the level, terms and duration of their contribution.

Our goal is a funding system which provides value for money for graduates and taxpayers, so the principle that students as well as taxpayers should contribute to the cost of their studies is an important one.

I believe – as do most people, including students – that those who benefit directly from higher education should contribute directly towards the cost of it. That is only fair.

The alternative – shifting the whole burden of university tuition onto the shoulders of taxpayers as a whole – would have three consequences.

First, it would inevitably mean tax increases for the majority of people who did not go to university, and who on average earn less than those who did.

Second, it would mean our universities competing with schools and hospitals for scarce resources, which in the past meant they lost out, putting their international pre-eminence at risk.

And third, it would mean the necessary re-introduction of a cap on numbers, with the Treasury regulating the number of places an institution could offer, and preventing the expansion which has driven wider access in recent years.

That is not my idea of a fair or progressive system.”

Diversity and choice

“And Philip and his colleagues will also look beyond universities, to examine choice and competition right across the sector and recommend practical solutions.

This will build on reforms which are already in train to increase the options which are available across further and higher education.

Over the last few years, reforms to technical education have improved every aspect of the offer available to young people.
We now have higher standards for apprenticeships and vocational courses.

T-levels are on the way, which will provide a high-quality, technical alternative to A-levels.

A new network of Institutes of Technology will specialise in the advanced technical skills our economy needs.

This review will now identify how we can help young people make more effective choices between these different options.

That could include giving young people better guidance about the earning potential of different jobs and what different qualifications are needed to get them, so they can make more informed decisions about their futures.

But this isn’t just about young people.

Retraining throughout the course of your career, to change jobs or gain promotion, will only become more necessary as new technologies have an impact on our economy.

We need to support flexible life-long learning, including part-time and distance learning – something which the current funding system does not always make easy.

So by focusing on these four key priorities…

…making tertiary education accessible to all…

…promoting choice and competition in the sector…

…delivering the skills our economy needs, and…

…getting value for money for students and taxpayers…

…we can give every young person access to an education that suits their skills and aspirations.

One which opens up possibilities for their future and helps them into a rewarding career.”

Conclusion

“Almost thirty years ago, when I was in charge of that local education authority, an incoming Conservative Prime Minister, who like me went to a state school…

…said that the great task of the coming decade should be to ‘make the whole of this country a genuinely classless society’.

Eighteen months ago, when I became Prime Minister, I spoke of my desire to make Britain a Great Meritocracy.

Today, our ambition for the Britain we will build outside the EU must be just as great.

And it must be matched with a determination to turn that ambition into reality.

Because by voting to leave the EU in 2016, millions of people across this country were not just choosing to leave the European Union…

…they were sending a clear message about how our society and our economy works – or rather doesn’t work – in too many communities.

If we are truly to make good on the instruction of the referendum, we need to reconnect everyone in our society to a sense of fairness and opportunity.

We need to make Britain a country where everyone can go as far as their talents will take them and no one is held back by their background or class.

Where education is the key to opening up opportunity for everyone.

The vision I have for the Britain we will build is of a country which is fit for the future, delivered through bold social and economic reform.

That is why we are building an education system which unlocks everyone’s talents, and gives them the skills they need to go as far as their hard work will take them.

It’s why we support the market economy and back entrepreneurs and wealth creators – but step in when businesses don’t play by the rules.

And it is why we are making the UK the very best place in the world to start and grow a high-tech business – while also making sure that new technologies work for everyone in society.

If we get it right, we can build a country that truly works for everyone.

A country where your background does not define your future, and class distinctions are a thing of the past.

Where a boy from a working class home can become a High Court judge, thanks to a great state education.

And where a girl from a private school can start a software business, thanks to a first-class technical education.

That is my vision for a fairer society and how we will deliver it.

A society where good, rewarding work is available for everyone.

An economy with the skills it needs to succeed.

Britain as the Great Meritocracy, a country that respects hard work, rewards effort and industry, where a happy and fulfilled life is within everyone’s grasp.”


梅姨近日也做出承诺,将会全面调整目前英格兰地区的大学学费。
        
目前,英国的大学学费除了低于美国的私立大学之外,但比其他国家要高很多。她指出,目前不同的大学有不同的收费制度,并未能够实践原先的引入市场竞争的构想。而大学高昂的收费对于多数学生而言,并不一定符合有关课程的教学素质。


剑桥大学


她同时认为高等学府的学术资格高过技能资格的态度已经过时,政府会考虑进一步支持发展职业技能培训及学徒制。

梅姨将此议题交由一个独立的委员会来作全面的检讨,预期将会涉及各个层面,包括学生的资助、下调大学学费及学生贷款利息。她表示,希望通过这次调整,能够确保来自贫穷家庭的学生获得平等的机会,不希望一些学生在毕业后欠下大笔债务。
  
英格兰地区大学学士学位课程每年的学费,自2010年保守党和自民党联合政府上台之后,大幅增加了近3倍,至每年9000镑,此后更增加至9250镑。据悉,大学学费过高成为保守党大选中失去年轻人选民的重要原因。


英式贵族的教育


凭借优质出色的教育资源、全球广泛认可的学历资格,英国教育已深入广大中国学生和家长心中,英国也成为众多中国家庭的首选留学国家之一。


英国的大学充分认识到高等教育的目的主要是为了学生就业。所学课程紧紧把握就业市场的需要,几乎没有一门课程是无用的。英国大学商科可以说是全球学生相当青睐的专业,每年都有大量的英国与国际学生申请。


1


英国的教育体制优异,系统完善


英国教育制度有数百年的悠久历史,高等教育体系比较完善,并有享誉世界的教育水平,严谨的学习风气及完善的教学设施设备,这些都是选择在英国求学就读的重要原因。


科学研究方面,英国获得过90多次诺贝尔奖,其中大多数都是英国大学的校友。英国大学的传媒与商科专业在国际上占有重要地位;在金融方面,伦敦的货币交易量大于纽约和东京的综合;英国的时装及奢侈品在世界上也久负盛名,英国拥有浓厚的艺术色彩,为求学学生提供了很好的学习氛围。

2

 
英国教育的特点——开放性思维


英国教育的特点就是批判性思维,开放性思维,就是学生的想法可以挑战传统。


如果认为老师或者课本上的观点不对,或者有新的想法,新的思路,可以提出来。只要说的有道理,同样可以给高分。解决问题的答案没有最好,只有更好,这就是英国的教育。更有创造性,能锻炼思维,能开拓我们的视野,更能学到东西。


在英国学校的课堂,看到的最多的是学生之间,师生之间的小组讨论、互动、交流,还有就是学生踊跃回答老师的问题。有句话说得好,教育的意义在于创造,创新,而不在于灌输——这就是英国教育的优越性。

3

 
英国教育是世界教育体系的发源地


英国在近三百年的世界史上面有重要的地位,通过海外殖民,建立起自己的联邦帝国。自英联邦成立至今,如果算上过去的香港和美国,埃及和南非,目前一共是57个,英国就是他们的宗主国。


全世界有200多个国家和地区,也就是说英联邦国家占了其中的1/4,包括了一些主要的发达国家,如美国,澳洲,加拿大,新西兰。这些英联邦国家有三个特点:

  • 共同的国家元首就是英国女王;

  • 官方语言是英语;

  • 按照英国的模式建立起和英国相同、相近的政治,经济教育体制。
     

4


英国教育的魅力


从国际教育的角度来说,英国的确有成为热门留学国家的魅力。


英国高等教育质量在全球享有盛誉,历经数百年发展的英国教育制度所培养的诺贝尔奖得主,获奖人数在全球位列第二。

在2018年QS发布的最新世界大学排名中,全球top10的高校中英国占有4所,在全球top50的高校中,英国高校数量仅次于美国。


据调查,除了教学质量之外,英国的生活、就业等方面也深受留学生们认可,超过90%的留学生对来的英国留学表示满意,这使得英国成为全球留学生满意度最高的国家之一。

5


英伦礼仪与全球化思维


以英国王室为代表的英伦礼仪,一直以来都是全球礼仪的最高代表,而英国人整体表现出来的礼仪和生活方式,也正是中国新兴中产家庭所关注。


众多中产家庭选择安排他们的子女前往英国留学或者学习,正是希望能够接触到地道的英伦礼仪,从而塑造子女的良好谈吐和生活方式。与此同时,英国以其在欧洲的重要地位和优越的地理位置、便利的交通,较其他欧洲国家乃至美国有着独特的优势。


6


优质教育下的高就业


英国在全球高等教育的地位不仅体现在院校的卓越学术,也体现在所培养的人才对本国乃至全球的人力资源输送上。


英国高等院校具有非常强的职业导向性,课程围绕市场的需要进行设置,举世闻名的教育质量,其文凭被全世界各个国家广泛认可,即使是在中国这样人才济济的大国,英国毕业的人才也有稳定的就业率。

中国留学生在英国现状


根据英国大学联盟(UUK)与英国高等教育国际办公室(IU)曾经联合发布的题为《英国高等教育国际化——事实与数据》报告, 作为全球最主要的国际学生输入国,英国近年来国际学生数量的增长主要来源于中国。



根据经济合作与发展组织(OECD)关于参与全球流动国际学生的最新统计数据,选择赴英留学的国际学生占10.3%,仅次于美国(19.4%),使得英国成为世界第二大国际学生输入国。其后的国家排名依次为澳大利亚(6.2%)、法国(5.7%)、德国(4.9%)、俄罗斯(3.4%)、日本(3.4%)、加拿大(3.4%)、中国(2.4%)、意大利(2.4%)。

留英国际学生满意度高


英国不仅重视和吸引中国学生,也十分重视他们在英国的留学体验。从2005年开始,英格兰高等教育拨款委员会(HEFCE)每年都委托相关机构进行大学生满意度调查,以此督促英国高校不断改进其教学、学生服务等。



目前,在学习、生活与服务等指标方面,在英国际学生的满意度一直位稳居第一,高于美国、加拿大、澳大利亚和新西兰等留学热门国家。

与其他国家相比,在英留学的年平均费为27,040美元,低于美国、澳大利亚等主要英语国家。95%的非欧盟国家留英本科生,可以在4年或更短时间内毕业,而在美国仅有64%的国际学生,可以在6年内获得本科学位。

“移民教育”的崛起


为什么越来越多的人选择了移民?移民究竟有哪些好处呢?一般来说,促使移民最重要的三个因素是:方便子女教育;保障财富安全;为未来养老做准备。


85%的条件优越者会考虑将孩子送出国留学,其中富豪更是高达90%,且认为高中是最适合的出国留学时间。


很多人可能认为,办理留学可能更加省时省钱。但实际情况并不如此,由于能够享有与英国公民一样的福利,获得英国永久居民身份后反而有更多的优势。

留学生与移民子女对比


学校录取率


留学生:国际名校每年招收国际留学生的比例一般不到20%;

移民子女:移民后则以当地学生的身份报名,不仅录取几率高,很多名校的王牌专业也可以优先选择(一些名校的王牌专业完全不对国际学生开放,意味着留学生与它彻底无缘)。

学费


留学生:留学的高额费用不用赘述,大家都知道。

移民子女:移民英国享受18岁以前公立免费教育,大学学费是国际留学生1/3的价格,此外入读大学、研究生,更多机会申请奖学金、助学金。

职业发展


留学生:留学生毕业后一般很难留在该国继续工作。

移民子女:相比留学生,和本国公民享受同等福利的移民子女,显然未来职业发展更具竞争力,不受各种限制困扰。

学生打工

 
留学生:一般情况下,留学生打工是严格限制的,即使有也是机会少报酬低。

移民子女:不受限制,可以社会打工,报酬较高,有更多机会进入500强企业实习,并能担当更为重要的职位,积累工作经验。

医疗

 
留学生:政府不会负担留学生的医疗费用,一般需自购商业保险或自费医疗。

移民子女:移民后享受和本国公民一样的福利待遇,其中就包括医疗福利。医疗费用由社会医疗保险承担,还可享受本地学生的各种福利。

亲子关系

 
留学生:留学生往往独自一人在外求学,父母不在身边。例如生病时,家长也不能及时去看望和照顾。

移民子女:移民后可以自由工作、居住和生活。移民父母也能更方便的陪伴孩子身边,关心和指导子女的学习和生活,有利于亲子关系和子女培养。



如果你想:


领事抛来橄榄枝:英国驻沪商务领事8分钟私密面谈
官方权威资讯:谈谈梅姨访华后如何留英及英国投资机遇
英国升学面霸官:英国教育体系与英名校录取标准现场公开
英本土商务专家:告诉您如何移民英国、做一个成功的企业家
绅士淑女的聚会:留学英国“精英圈”鸡尾酒会



留英直通车 驻沪领馆官方见面会
留学英国·留在英国


活动时间:

2018年3月17日(周六)下午2点


活动地点:

上海静安区威海路500号四季酒店37F


特邀嘉宾


Seif Usher


英国驻沪总领事馆商务领事及贸易处主任


Ben Armstrong
商务公司董事总经理
 
英国本土专业从事投资咨询企业,成立迄今30年,受英国金融监管局监管认证。


Caroline Xin


资深英国升学专家
 幼教本科、金融硕士双文凭

多年海外留学与工作经验,代表英国顶尖寄宿中学Warwick School,Dauntsey’s School和Rendcomb College等多所私立中小学在华招生。


Chloe 徐源梓   


英国投资移民首席专家
英国约克大学国际市场营销学硕士


参与策划及运作 JK tire,kohler 等跨国公司涉欧商务洽谈,协助TITICACA累计组织近千人赴欧了解商业及定居环境,为中国家庭规划欧洲资产及身份双配置的专业方案。


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