欧洲自由行费用协会

【双语阅读】纽约时报:牛津大学首次直面招生质疑

北京新东方学校 2018-12-05 15:54:03

Oxford Lifts the Veil on Race, Wealth and Privilege.

牛津大学揭开种族、财富、特权面纱。


全文字数:1824

阅读时间:6分钟



For the first time, the University of Oxford has published data about its undergraduate admissions.

牛津大学首次公开本科招生数据。



LONDON-The 19th-century poet Matthew Arnold spoke of its "dreaming spires." The honeyed stonework of its colleges has drawn the global elite of learning to its quadrangles and tranquillity.

19世纪英国诗人马修·阿诺德用"梦幻尖塔"来描述伦敦。庭院式学院建筑静谧而又美轮美奂,吸引了世界各地的精英学子。


Yet the University of Oxford has long been roiled by questions of race, inequality and privilege swirling through British society. Some of the conundrums about who gets to be an Oxford undergraduate surfaced anew on Wednesday when, for the first time, the 850-year-old university published data intended to challenge assertions that it endured as a place of white, wealth-driven privilege.

然而,牛津大学一直以来饱受种族、不平等、特权问题的困扰,整个英国社会充斥着质疑声。谁将成为牛津大学本科生的难题再次浮出水面。周三,这所有着850年历史的大学首次公开数据,旨在挑战牛津受白人、财富、特权驱使的说法。


The figures showed: About 3 percent of the British population is black, according to the most recent census, but only 1.9 percent of the roughly 3,200 students admitted to Oxford in 2017 identified as black Britons.

数据显示:英国人口中约有3%的黑人。根据最新统计,2017年,3200名入学牛津的学生中,英籍黑人仅占1.9%。


That was an increase of less than a percentage point from 2013, when 1.1 percent of British undergraduates at Oxford identified as black, a subset of what the university called "black and minority ethnic" students, including those of Asian and mixed heritage, whose share of admissions rose to 17.9 percent last year, from 13.9 percent in 2013. The statistics do offer some startling insights: eight colleges - including some of the most prestigious - failed to admit a single black Briton in one or more of the years from 2015 to 2017.

2013年,全校英籍黑人本科生比例1.1%,增长率低于1%。学校把一群学生称为"黑人与少数民族",其中包括亚裔和混血,这部分人的比例从13年的13.9%上升到16年的17.9%。从2015年到2017年,包括一些最著名的学院在内的八个学院在国内没有招收一个黑人学生。


David Lammy, a Labour lawmaker and former education minister who has campaigned against what he has called "social apartheid" at Oxford, said the latest figures showed that the university was "an institution defined by entrenched privilege that is the preserve of wealthy white students from London and the Southeast."

戴维·拉米,工党议员,也是前教育部长,在牛津发起了反对"社会种族隔离"运动。他说,最新数据表明这所大学受特权驱使,即保护伦敦和东南部白人学生。


Cherwell, a student newspaper at Oxford, reported on Wednesday that the university had admitted more students in 2017 from a single London private school, 49, than it had admitted black undergraduates from the rest of Britain, 48.

切尔韦尔,牛津学生报。周三报道称,2017年,学校在伦敦一所私立学校就录取了49名学生,而国内其他地方录取的学生也仅有48名。


That appeared to compound other inequalities, such as the preponderance of students from fee-paying private schools - known in Britain as public schools - in the south of England among the annual intake of more than 3,200 undergraduates. And among the slowly increasing number of successful applicants from state schools, the statistics were skewed because they did not show how many undergraduates had been educated at state-financed grammar schools.

这也导致了其他不平等现象的发生。牛津大学每年招收3200多名本科生,其中,来自私立学校的学生在数量上远超公立学校。成功申请上牛津大学的公立学校的学生数量增长缓慢,这些数据是歪曲的,因为他们没有公开就读于国家资助的文法学校的学生的数量。


Oxford's intake displayed a geographic imbalance between the north of Britain and the more affluent south, where the bulk of national wealth is concentrated. "Oxford reflects the inequalities - socio-economic, ethnic and regional - that exist in British society," Louise Richardson, the university's vice chancellor, said in a foreword to the report.

牛津招生政策表现出英国南北方地理上的差异,全国财富大部分集中在南方。牛津大学副校长路易丝·理查德森在报告的序言中说:"学校招生政策折射出英国社会经济不平等、种族不平等、地区不平等。"


According to the Cherwell article, "17 of the top 20 schools for Oxford admissions in 2017 are fee-paying, while the other three are prestigious grammar schools." Additionally, the newspaper said, state-educated students tended to apply to the most oversubscribed subjects while applicants from private schools tended to apply to less sought-after courses, such as classics or modern languages.

根据牛津校报,2017年学校招生,20所顶尖中学里面,17所为收费学校,另外3所为著名文法学校。另外,公立学校的学生倾向于申请最受欢迎的学科;而私立学校的学生则偏向于一些冷门课程,比如古典语言或当代语言。


At the heart of the debate is a perceived contest between demographics and academic excellence. Critics such as Mr. Lammy, the Labour lawmaker, argue that a student from a low-income area who gets good grades on the national A-level exams at the end of high school "is more talented than their contemporary with the same grades" at a top fee-paying school such as Eton or Harrow. "And all the academic evidence shows that they far outshine their peers at university, too," he said.

争论焦点是一场人口统计学与学术卓越之间的竞争。批评家戴维·拉米认为,在A-level考试中得高分的低收入地区的学生比伊顿公学或哈罗公学中相同分数的学生更具有天赋。所有学术证据表明,他们在大学里也远胜过同龄人。


In an effort to help disadvantaged applicants, Oxford announced on Wednesday that it would increase to 1,350, from 850, the number of would-be undergraduates it admits to one-week summer courses to help them apply.

为了帮助弱势申请者,牛津大学周三宣布将增加为期一周的暑期课程的招生数量。


Alan Rusbridger, the principal of Lady Margaret Hall college and a former editor of The Guardian newspaper, wrote on Wednesday, "it's hard to win a place at Oxford." Last year, for instance, almost 20,000 applicants chased 3,270 places. "A great many academically able students will not be offered a place."

艾伦·鲁斯布罗格,牛津大学玛格丽特夫人学堂院长,曾任卫报编辑。写道:"要在牛津大学赢得一席之地真的很难"。去年,2万名申请人角逐3270个名额。很多人纵使学术再优秀,也没能申请上。


The debate in Britain seems more passionate than those in Germany and Italy. In France, However, highly selective schools that train the country's top civil servants, politicians, business leaders and engineers. Some schools have put in place admission programs that target young people from disenfranchised and poorer neighborhoods, which often have higher concentrations of immigrants.

英国的这场辩论似乎比德国和意大利更为激烈。然而,在法国,精英学校培养国家高级公务员、政治家、商界领袖和工程师。部分学校开展了专门针对被剥夺了特权和贫困地区的年轻人的招生计划,贫困地区的移民人口往往更加稠密。



Words and Expressions

生词


dreaming spires:梦幻尖塔

Quadrangle:四边形;四方院子

Tranquility:安静

roil:使烦恼;使不安

conundrum:谜;难解的问题

anew:重新;再

subset:子集;小团体

entrenched:确立;牢固

preponderance:优势

sought-after:很吃香的;广受欢迎的

demographics:人口统计学

disenfranchised:剥夺…的选举权;终止…的特权



好文推荐:

2019海外留学:择校前必读

2017十大热门专业就业大揭秘!这个本科专业毕业生竟然收入最高

从小培养孩子的阅读习惯,家长应该怎么做?

俞敏洪:先别要求孩子考一个好大学,这四样东西更重要



关注小新,获得最新,最有趣成长干货!