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够胆就来试试牛津大学入学题!(下)

英语学习网 2020-07-31 16:25:04

问:Why does your heart rate increase when you exercise?

为什么运动时你的心跳会加速?

Subject科目:医药Medicine

面试老师:Robert Wilkins, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics (生理学,解剖学和遗传学系)

面试官解释:

The simple answer, which all students can provide, is because you need to deliver more oxygen and nutrients to muscles and remove metabolic products. But follow-up questions would probe whether the student appreciates that there must be a way for the body to know it needs to raise the heart rate, and possible ways for achieving this. Answers might include sensing lowered oxygen or raised carbon dioxide levels. In fact, gas levels might not change much, so students are further asked to propose other signals and ways in which those possibilities could be tested. This probes selection criteria such as problem-solving and critical thinking, intellectual curiosity, enthusiasm and curiosity, and the ability to listen.

答案很简单,所有学生都能回答:那就是因为你需要向肌肉输送更多氧气和营养,同时移除新城代谢中的废物。但接下来的问题可以考察学生是否能察觉到,我们的身体是有办法知晓有必要提高心跳速率,以及找到可能实现它的办法的。答案中可能包含“察觉氧气量偏低、或二氧化碳等级升高”。事实上,气体含量从不会改变,所以学生可能被进一步问到“如何能够通过其他信号来察觉、并且有什么办法可以检验”?这就考察到了学生解决问题的能力、批判性思考的能力、对科学的好奇心、热情、以及聆听的能力。

问:If you could save either the rainforests or the coral reefs, which would you choose?

(如果你只能拯救热带雨林或珊瑚礁中的一个,你会选择哪个)?

Subject科目:生物科学Biological sciences

面试老师:Martin Speight, Department of Zoology (动物系)

面试官解释:

I’d expect students to be able to use their general knowledge plus their common sense to come up with an answer – no detailed knowledge is required. Students might then be asked about the importance of natural features, such as biodiversity and rare species, and human interests, such as the fuel and food, ecotourism and medicines we get from rainforests or reefs. Finally there are impacts to consider from climate change, soil erosion, pollution, logging, biofuel replacement, overfishing, etc. The final answer doesn't matter – both reefs and rainforests must be managed sustainably to balance conservation and human needs.

我希望学生能依靠他们的常识和感知去组织答案——任何具体的知识点在这里都是不需要的。学生可能进一步被问道自然生物的重要性,比如生物多样性和稀缺生物;人类利益,比如石油和食物、生态旅行、从雨林和珊瑚群找到的药品等等。最后也要讨论对气候变化、土地侵蚀、污染、伐木、石油替代、过度捕鱼等等问题的考量。最终的答案其实并无所谓,因为不论是雨林还是珊瑚礁都必须要保护,在与人类的利益之间找到平衡点。

问:What does it mean for someone to take another's car?

(一个人“拿走”别人的车是什么意思)?

Subject科目:法律Law

面试老师:Ben McFarlane, Faculty of Law (法学院)

面试官解释:

There is no right answer to this question. For example, can you take a car without driving it, or even without moving it? Our focus is on the candidate’s reasoning – how he or she formulates an initial definition, and how he or she then applies and refines that initial definition in response to hypothetical examples provided by the interviewers. One example might be: I am walking along the street when it starts to rain. I open the door of an unlocked car and sit there for 15 minutes until the rain passes. Have I ‘taken’ the car? The aim of the interview is to give the candidate a chance to show his or her application, reasoning ability, and communication skills.

这个问题没有标准答案。比如,你能不驾驶、甚至不移动就“拿走”一辆车吗?我们关注的焦点在考生的逻辑性上——他/她是如何组织一个初始的定义,然后怎么把这个初始定义运用到这个假设性例子的回答当中。比如,考生可以回答说:“我在街上走、跟着就下雨了。我打开一辆没有上锁的车,在里面坐了15分钟避雨。那我这样算不算''了这辆车呢?(编者按:这里英文和中文有一些小差别,翻译上无法实现。因为英文的“拿”, take,同时也有“占有”的意味。)”出这一题的目的是给考生一个机会来展示他解决和归纳的能力、以及沟通技巧。