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牛津大学华裔美女辩手火了!

国际教育头条 2020-09-15 11:28:39
国际教育头条
国际教育行业动态/国际课程/国际教育

最近,一位来自牛津大学圣凯瑟琳学院(St. Catherine's College的华裔辩手Cecilia Zhao因为参加牛津学联(Oxford Union)的辩论赛在国外社交网络上火了。



目前,她的辩论视频在国外视频网站YouTube上已经有了29万+的播放量,来看现场视频:



据牛津学联官方介绍,这场辩论主要是关于科技兴起对社会的威胁:


“This House Believes the Rise of Tech Empires Threatens Society”

辩题为:“技术帝国的兴起是否对社会形成了威胁”


Facebook, Google, and Amazon have made communication and commerce considerately easier in a globalised world, but has this come at the unacceptable cost of allowing an oligopoly in the technology sector to grow too powerful?

在这个全球化的世界中,脸书、谷歌以及亚马逊让沟通和商业变得更加便捷,但这是否也使得这些科技行业的寡头变得过于强大,从而带来令人难以接受的代价?


作为反方,小姐姐认为“技术帝国的崛起并不会对社会造成威胁”。



“My argument today is simple: acknowledge that tech empires can be dangerous, create inconveniences and cause problems. But more importantly, I would like to propose that society is not static, and that we can offer adequate insurance against even the most adverse impacts.”

我今天的论点很简单:承认技术帝国或许很危险,或许会引起不便、带来问题。但更重要的是,我认为社会并非是静态的,我们可以提供足够的保障,甚至能够对抗最不利的影响。


看完这段辩论发言,不少外国网友都被迷倒了,表示,“你长得这么好看,说什么都对”……


今天我们就来了解一下海外这种辩论赛的机制和影响。



首先来看一下这位小姐姐参加的辩论赛,组织者就是牛津学联(Oxford Union),它是世界顶级辩论、演讲俱乐部。自1823年成立以来,先后吸引爱因斯坦、丘吉尔、尼克松、卡特、基辛格、撒切尔夫人等名人在这里发表演说。



英文辩论有各种各样的模式和规则,不少赛制都是由政治辩论演变而来的。比如政策性的林肯-道格拉斯辩论(Lincoln–Douglas Debate),就是1858年林肯与道格拉斯关于奴隶制的著名辩论而得名,是一种美国式的单人对单人的辩论。


当然要说曝光度最高的辩论,非美国总统竞选电视辩论莫属了……



而目前国际上采用最多的,就是英国议会制辩论(British Parliamentary,简称BP。戳下面的视频,了解英国议会制辩论的赛制↓↓↓




剑桥大学学生联合会也对英国议会制辩论的规则进行了具体的解释:


In British Parliamentary, there are four teams of two speakers. Two of the teams (and hence four speakers) are on the government and two teams are on the opposition. The first two speakers on the government side are called the opening government, the first two on the opposition are called the opening opposition and similarly the last two speakers on the government and the opposition are called the closing government and the closing opposition respectively. Speeches alternate between the two sides, starting with the first government speech, and are usually up to either five or seven minutes in length. All the teams are trying to win the debate outright - this means that it is not the side which wins but a specific team. Hence, speakers within the same team cooperate but teams on the same side do not cooperate during the debate, and instead try to outmanoeuvre each other. The teams are then ranked first to fourth in the debate. Each of the teams has a specific role in the debate.


在英国议会制辩论中,两位辩手组成一队,共有四队。两队(共四名辩手)为正方,两队为反方。正方的前两位辩手为正方上院,反方的前两位辩手为反方上院;同理正方、反方的后两位辩手分别为正方下院、反方下院。从正方的第一位辩手开始,双方交替发言,发言时间通常为5-7分钟。所有的队伍都希望在比赛中取胜 —— 这意味着不是哪一方获胜,而是哪一支队伍获胜。因此,同一支队伍的辩手会互相合作,但同一方的队伍并不会在比赛中合作,而是试图智胜对方。比赛后队伍将被排出第一至第四名,而每支队伍在辩论中都有具体的分工。